Undocumented

Here are some of the mostly undocumented technical aspects to the Model S and X that may appeal to the engineer in us!  Since little of this is from Tesla Motors, assume some data may be inaccurate. If you know more, we’d love to add to this list – just comment below and if possible, add a source.  Tesla also makes ongoing improvements that may change vendors or specifications between older and newer cars.

Acronyms – Use our Acronyms and Abbreviations to help in decoding terminology !

Active Aerodynamics –  Left and right front flaps boost aerodynamic efficiency and range by only providing additional airflow when needed through the radiators. Parts for the S/X are made by Rochling. These flaps are only open about 10% of the driving time according to Rochling.  (from article in Auto Industries magazine Q1-2014, page 82). The Model 3 also includes it’s own shutter system, different from the S/X.

Aluminum – The Model S skin and structure is 98% aluminum. The aluminum body only weighs 410 lbs (Dream Cars video Dec-2014)

Antennas (14 + 7 fob) S/X

  • AM Radio – Rear hatch glass
  • Bluetooth – Near top of 17″ display (based on our signal strength measurements)
  • Cellular – 800 MHz GSM (USA) antenna resides in both side mirrors (Nearfield Systems)
  • Charge port release – Uses FOB antennas (see below at Key Fob)
  • FM/DAB Radio – Rear hatch glass
  • FOB – See below at Key Fob (7 antennas)
  • GPS – Under top of back hatch glass, left-side
  • Homelink – Front of car, 3-5″ from the frunk latch, passenger side
  • TPMS (Tire Pressure Monitor Service) – near bottom front of AC propulsion motor in 2012-2014 cars. May have changed for cars with displayable tire pressures.
  • WiFi -Passenger side mirror (Nearfield Systems)
  • XM Satellite – Under back hatch glass, top right-side in cars built before December 23, 2014, under the pano roof center-rear in later editions

AutoPilot 1.0 – The system is based in part with the Mobileye EyeQ3 hardware/software, a front facing camera, radar and 12 long-range ultrasonic sensors. (Computer Vision Video by Mobileye). Auto-pilot hardware was made available in all Tesla cars produced in September 2014 to mid October 2016.

AutoPilot 2.x – The hardware includes Nvidia’s DRIVE PX 2 AI computing platform, estimated to be 40 times more powerful than AP1. In addition the system includes 8 cameras, 12 longer range ultrasonic sensors (about 30 feet range), and a front radar. The hardware is included in all Tesla vehicles produced after October 19, 2016.  Two levels of optional software are offered – Enhanced AutoPilot, as set of features that includes AP1 and more. A second Full Self-Driving option provides Level 5 autonomous driving, once it completed and is approved by regulators (perhaps in 2018).

The Tesla AP2 processor board includes an Nvidia PG418 MXM module. This board contains a GP106 GPU and 4 GB of GDDR5 memory.  The GPU has 1280 CUDA cores and in this configuration uses 128-bit wide memory. Interestingly, the PG418 board has pads for an additional 4 GB of memory for use with a 256-bit wide version of the GPU. So if necessary, Tesla can  double the performance if needed in the future by swapping out this board.

The main board includes many additional parts, including an Infineon TriCore 32-bit microprocessor; a blox NEO-M8L GPS/GLONASS/Galileo/Beidou module with sensors and dead-reckoning abilities; and a Nvidia TA795 Tegra SoC with Dual-Core CPU, Quad-Core Arm Cortex-A57 and integrated Pascal architecture.

AutoPilot 2.x Cameras

Common color cameras use four filters – RGBB (red, green blue, blue) over cells to create a single color pixel (two blue are used to increase the blue sensitivity. Most Tesla cameras uses clear on 3 cells for monochrome, and a red filter on the fourth cell (RCCC). This increases the monochrome light sensitivity, as color is not important, except for the ability to detect red traffic lights and taillights.

All but the rear camera is the same Aptina AR0132 camera (Aptina is now On Semiconductor). It is a 1/3 inch CMOS 1.2M device, capable of 720p at 60 fps. Tesla appears to be using a visual field of 1280 x 960 at 30 fps. An addition 4 vertical rows of camera (not visual) data make each frame 1280 x 964.

The rear camera is OmniVision OV10635 for 720p, where Tesla is using 1160 x 720 at 30 fps.

Camera Locations

  • Front narrow (1.5″ to side); max distance 820 ft., 35 degree field of view
  • Front main (1.5″ to other side); max distance 260 ft, 50 degree field of view
  • Front fisheye* (center); max distance 195 ft., 150 degree field of view
  • Left Pilar*, 195 ft., 80 degree field of view
  • Right Pilar*, 195 ft., 80 degree field of view
  • Left Repeater *, 325 ft., 60 degree field of view
  • Right Repeater*, 325 ft., 60 degree field of view
  • Rear* max distance 160 ft., 140 degree field of view
  • Cabin (model 3 only)  details unknown *

* does not appear to be used yet for Autopilot (1-Oct-2017)
Left and right repeater are the rearward facing cameras in the side “T” markers

Thanks go to verygreen, lunitks and others for some of this information.

Batteries – Primary Model S and X

  • 100 kWh – 400V, 8256 total cells in 16 modules, each with 6 groups of 86 cells = 516 total cells in each of 16 modules, producing 25v per module (from wk056’s rip down)
  • 85/90 kWh – 400V, 7104 total cells in 16 modules, each with 6 groups of 74 cells = 444 cells, producing 25 volts (our analysis from battery photos); nominal voltage 346 VDC. 90 kW uses higher-capacity cells.  The 85 pack weighs about 1330 lbs.
  • 75/70/60 (v2) kWh – 350V 5880 total cells in 14 modules, each with 70 cells = 420 cells, producing 25 volts (our analysis and conjecture); nominal voltage 302 VDC. 75 kW version uses higher-capacity cells. 70 kW cars starting around May-2016 are using the 75 kW pack, but are software limited to 70 kW. These packs can be upgraded over-the-air to 75 kW for a fee.  Similarly, the 60 kW version 2 (June 2016 and after) use a 75 kW pack and is software limited to 60 kW and can be upgraded to 75 kW for a fee.
  • Classic 60 kWh (2015 and older) – 350V, 5040 cells in 14 modules, each with 6 groups of 60 cells = 360 cells, producing 25 volts (our conjecture); nominal voltage 302 VDC. The 60 pack weighs 1150 lbs.
  • 40 kWh – 350V, is a 60 kWh pack software limited to 40 kWh
  • Each cell has about 12Wh of energy
  • Individual cells are 4.167 volts at 100% SOC or nominal 3.6 V (based on our reverse calculations of pack cells and capacity)*  The classic cell current is 3100 mA, and newer cells used in the 90/75 pack current are about 3280 mA.
  • Cells are in a 18650 form-factor casing sourced primarily from Panasonic (the exact battery is only sold to Tesla and is not otherwise available) .

Batteries – Primary Model 3

  • 74 kWh – 4416 total 2170 type cells in 4 modules; 2 modules with 23 groups of 46 cells each, and 2 modules with 25 groups of 46 cells each (from electreck).  Based on the Tesla EPA report, the long range battery pack is 350 volts.
  • 50 kWh – 2976 total 2170 type cells in 4 modules; 2 modules with 23 groups of 31 cells each, and 2 modules with 25 groups of 31 cells each (from electreck).

Batteries – Other, Model S and X

  • 12 V,  33 Ah sealed absorbed glass mat deep cycle lead-acid. It is used for most everything other than propulsion and HVAC.  One vendor Tesla uses is C&D Technologies DCS-33IT battery. The battery condition is monitored with a Hella Intelligent Battery Sensor.
  • Model S – 3V coin cell for FOB – CR2032
  • Model X – 3V coin cell for FOB – CR2354

Bluetooth – 3.0 + HS; Audio streaming with A2DP sink, A2DP source, AVRCP 1.4; Audio Profile A2DP includes support for standard SBC codec (highly compressed low-bit rate audio); Uses the Parrot FC6050 W chip.

Browser User Agent String – Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux) AppleWebKit /534.34 (KHTML, like Gheko) QtCarBrowser Safari /534.34  (verified/negligible changes from v5.0 through v8.1)

Bus Systems – CAN (Controller Area Network), LIN (Local Interconnect Network) and 100 Mbps Ethernet via a 6 port switch.

CAN 2, 3, 4 and 6 are accessible from the diagnostics connector. The OBD2 port has access to CAN 1 and 6. Ethernet is accessible from the ethernet diagnostics port, but only by service. With current software it is normally disabled.

  • CAN1 – MCU/ODB-II
    • A single connection between ODB-II  and MCU.
    • Presumed not implemented in software
    • In our tests, we were unable to see any data at 250 and 500 kbps, similar to other owner reports
  • CAN2 – Body, 125 kbps
    • AM/FM Radio Unit (with optional XM radio)
    • Door controllers
    • Lights (signals, dome, etc.)
    • Mirror controllers
    • Sunroof controller
  • CAN3 – Powertrain, 500 kbps
    • Charger 1 and 2 (if equipped)
    • Charge port
    • Drive Inverter -Rear
    • Drive Inverter – Front (AWD only)
    • DC-DC converter for 12V charging
    • HV Battery Management System
    • Thermal controller
  • CAN4 – Body Fault Tolerant, 125 kbps
    • Climate Control Cabin Air Heater
    • Climate Control module
    • Memory Seat Controller
  • CAN6 – Chassis, 500 kbps
    • Air Suspension (if equipped)
    • Blind Spot and Parking System (if equipped)
    • Camera, forward (AP1, if equipped)
    • Electronic Parking Brake Controller
    • Instrument Cluster
    • LIN bus
    • Power Steering Controller
    • Radar (if equipped)
    • Stability Control and Braking Controller
    • Tire Pressure Monitoring System
  • CAN Stability Control
  • CAN FastCharge – Supercharger/CHAdeMo to Internal Charger, 33.3 kbps
  • LIN – For simple low speed devices, 20 kbps
    • LIN1 – Steering wheel controls
    • LIN2 – Homelink, 12v Batter and monitor
    • LIN3 – Seat Heaters and Rearview Mirror
    • LIN4 – Future
    • LIN5 – Body Control Module – Rain/ light sensor
  • Ethernet A – Instrument Cluster
  • Ethernet B – Main Display/MCU
  • Ethernet C – Diagnostic port
  • Ethernet D – Gateway

Connectivity – GSM 3G/4G LTE with HSPA+ depending on vehicle production date.

In the USA, Tesla uses the AT&T’s cellular network.

Every Model S supports 3G.  The hardware does not support LTE in early cars. New LTE capable hardware/software is included in all cars manufactured after May 2015.

Early cars use the Sierra Wireless AR8550 (TMC Forum). We suspect new cars have switched to the Sierra Wireless AR755X module (unconfirmed).

Contactors – These connect the high voltage battery pack to the car. See our detailed contactors explanation and analysis.

Display – Instrument Cluster (IC) S/X

  • 12.3″ LCD, Current: 1920 x 720;  Earlier vehicles: 1280 x 480 resolution
  • Nvidia Tegra 2 dual core CPU (Mercury News, 15-May-2013)
  • Reset by pressing top left and top right buttons at the same time on the steering wheel (safe to do anytime)
  • Software – Linux, QT and custom Tesla code (PC Word interview)

Display – Main Computer Unit (MCU) S/X

  • 17″ LCD, 1200 x 1920 resolution; may have been 1080 x 1920 in early vehicles.
  • Nvidia’s Visual Computing Module VCM (Nvidia)
  • Nvidia Tegra 3 quad-core +1 power-saving core (Nvidia blog)
  • Cypress MultiTouch controller (press release)
  • Reset by pressing center left and center right scroll buttons at the same time on the steering wheel (safe to do anytime)
  • Software – Linux, QT and custom Tesla code (PC Word interview)
  • Our analysis of 7.0 UI

Display – Main Computer Unit (MCU) 3

  • 15″ LCD
  • Intel Gordon Peak Board using the Atom E3800 series CPU and Intel Apollo Lake system-on-chip (Electrek & TeslaTap)
  • Reset by pressing center left and center right scroll buttons at the same time on the steering wheel (safe to do anytime)
  • Software – Linux, QT and custom Tesla code

GPSU-Blox (from a Model S diagnostic screen, installed equipment); AP2 cars also include a high precision Blox GPS module. See AutoPilot above for more details.

Key FOB – Model S

  • 1 ring antenna behind back bumper, bottom-center (visible with bumper removed)
  • 1 ring antenna behind front bumper, bottom-center, slightly to driver’s side
  • 1 ring antenna near top center of rear seat
  • 2 bar antennas inside at dash, at the left and right side panels
  • 1 dead-fob ring antenna below right side parking light (early production cars) or below the dash near the bottom of the windshield centered on the passenger seat  (new cars)
  • 1 bar antenna inside the center pedestal
  • Fob antennas each have a range of about 3 feet.
  • 315 MHz for North America, 433.93 MHz for Europe and Asia (industry FOB standards)
  • FOB uses TI TMS37F128 Controller
  • If battery is dead, it can be powered via RF energy from antennas – best placement is in the cup holders, or on the center windshield if outside).

Key FOB Model X

  • 2.4 GHz Bluetooth LTE in USA. Other countries add 315 MHz (Canada) or 433.94 MHz (Europe/Asia) to meet local transmission regulations
  • Antenna placement within vehicle not yet known, but likely similar to Model S above
  • FCC documents and photos

Lights – Our lighting count has over 430 LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes).

Memory – Vehicles have various types of memory in different modules. The MCU (17″ Media Control Unit) has the most memory devices and early units include:

  • 2 GB DDR3 SDRAM (on the Nvidia VCM board)
  • 8 GB eMMC NAND Flash (on the Nvidia VCM board)
  • 16 GB SD flash memory card, primarily for Garmin mapping data storage
  • 4 GB SD flash memory card, for firmware, keys, etc. (unconfirmed)
  • 2 MB flash memory (for 32-bit 116 MHz CPU, firmware)

Motors – Our motor and solenoid count for the S/X comes up with over 60 when all options are included.

Motor – Propulsion (non-AWD) S/X

  • Three phase, four pole, AC Induction, 320 Volts
  • 18,700 RPM at 155 MPH
  • Classic S60 – 302  hp (In Oct-2014 website changed to 380 hp, but we believe  it may be a website error; discontinued)
  • S60 version 2 – 382 motor power, 315 hp battery limited (new, June 2016; discontinued in April 2017)
  • S70 – 382 motor power, 315 hp battery limited (discontinued in June 2016)
  • S75 – unstated, assumed similar to S70/S60 v2
  • S85 – 373 hp (before April-2015, listed as 380 hp, then 362 hp to July-2015, now discontinued)
  • P85/P85+ – Originally 416 hp, upgraded in 2015 via software to  470 hp (now discontinued)
  • Reduction gear ratio 9.73 to 1
  • Liquid cooled, with temperature monitored stator
  • Motor weight about 150 lbs.
  • Motor assembly (with reduction gear and inverter) weight 300+ lbs.

Motors – Propulsion (AWD) S/X

  • Three phase, four pole, AC Induction, 320 Volts
  • Small motor 18,200 RPM
  • Larger motor 18,700 RPM (available on rear of Performance versions only)
  • S60D – 259 hp motor power front and rear, 328 hp total battery limited (now discontinued)
  • S70D – 259 hp motor power front and rear, 328 hp total battery limited (discontinued in June 2016)
  • S75D/X75D – unstated, assumed similar to S70D/S60D
  • S85D – 417 hp (S85D discontinued)
  • P85D – 259 hp front, 503 hp rear motor power (until July-2015 – 221 hp front, 470 hp rear motor power and  originally 691 hp total, but now total unstated, P85D discontinued)
  • 90D/X90D – 259 hp motor power front and rear, 417 hp total battery limited* (discontinued)
  • 100D/X100D – Unknown, but more than 90D/X90D.
  • P90D/PX90D – 259 hp motor power front, 503 hp motor power rear, 463 hp total battery limited* (discontinued)
  • P90DL/PX90DL – 259 hp motor power front, 503 hp motor power rear, 532 hp total battery limited* (discontinued)
  • P100DL/PX100DL – Unknown, but more than P90DL/PX90DL.
  • Reduction gear ratio- Large motor 9.73 to 1, Small motor 9.34:1
  • Liquid cooled, with temperature monitored stator* Model X horsepower values are no longer stated on the Tesla website after 2015, and assumed to be unchanged from prior values.  Battery limited values are maximum motor shaft power.

Motor Inverter – This converts the DC battery voltage to AC, powering the motor. It delivers up to 1000 amps (from Tesla 2010 10K annual report). On the P85D/P90D it delivers 1300 amps. With the Ludicrous option, it is boosted to 1500 amps (from Tesla blog).

Music Formats – While only MP3, MP4 and AAC (without DRM) are documented, it also supports AIFF, OGG, WAV and FLAC (16 and 24 bits up to 176 kHz or more) files.  Version 7 and older had undocumented support for WMA and lossless WMA via USB, but a bug causes dropouts in WMA files. WMA has since been dropped in Version 8. AIFF format supports 16-bit, but not the less common 24-bit format. See ‘USB’ below for flash drive formats.

The best audio quality occurs when using a lossless format such as AIFF and FLAC via the USB connection. See more at USB Flash Drives for Music.

Navigation System – A Tesla combination of Google on the main display and Navigon (a Garmin company) for the Instrument display and guidance.

OEM Suppliers – There are over 300 OEM suppliers providing over 2,000 parts for the Model S (from 2013 Annual report). This Model S Suppliers Business Chart shows many of the major OEM parts supplied to Tesla in 2012.

While many of the suppliers are the same as the Model S, this 2016 Suppliers for the Model X chart shows the latest OEMs (although the image is the prototype X).

Operating System – Tesla created code running  on Linux, written in C (PC World interview); Modified Ubuntu using the ext3 file system (dragtimes).  Early in the development Tesla considered both Android and iOS, but the key people at Android recommended against it, and Apple was unwilling to even talk to Tesla (Elon, video @36:10).

Vehicles- before version 8.1 (17.24.30) used the Linux kernel 2.6.36 for the center display. With the Tesla version 17.24.30, the kernel was updated to Linux 4.4.35. (Electrek). Functionally, there doesn’t appear to be any difference and no new features were added related to the OS upgrade.

Paint Color Codes – Tesla uses standard paint color codes. Some colors have multiple names or have changed names. You can also confirm the color on label when you open the driver door. Look for the white label is near the bottom door jam.  The paint code appears on the bottom line of the label after PNT.

ColorCode
WhitePBCW
Pearl White MetallicPPSW
BlackPBSB
Obsidian Black MetallicPMBL
Red Multi-coat MetallicPMMR
Midnight Silver Metallic, previously called New GreyPMNG
Silver Titanium Metallic, previously called Warm SilverPPTI
Deep Blue Metallic, previously called Ocean BluePPSB
Brown Metallic (discontinued)PMAB
Blue Metallic (discontinued)PMMB
Green Metallic (discontinued)PMSG
Silver Metallic (discontinued, then reinstated)PMSS
Grey Metallic (discontinued), also called Dolphin GreyPMTG
Red Signature (limited availability)PPSR

Patents – Tesla Motors has over 200 patents issued and more than 280 pending (from 2013 Annual report). Lots of interesting reading!  Here’s an alternative list of Tesla patents that seems more current.

Power Connector – Below the center arm-rests, the 12 v “cigarette lighter” power connector is fused for 15 amps. It is a switched circuit and power is removed when the car turns off.  When the car is on, and the car is charging the 12v battery from the main battery, this connector’s voltage measures at 14.4 volts (from our measurements and analysis).  The Model X includes a second 12v power connector in the trunk area.

Power Consumption – Using the included Model-S charger, after the car is fully charged the vampire AC power load is less than 10 mA, essentially zero!  (from our measurements)

Processors – Our CPU report has over 60 processors on a fully loaded car.

Radar Transponder – Tesla uses a 77 GHz radar transceiver (from article by Ron Freund in Jan-2015 Current EVents). It is likely using NXP’s MR2001 chipset or similar and the chip consumes a negligible 2.5W when operating. The Radar system is present in all cars built after late-September 2014 and until Fall-2017 were sourced from Bosch.

Vehicles with AP2.5 hardware, including all Model 3 cars, now use a radar assembly from Continental, the ARS410 CV, similar to the ARS404-21 or ARS408-21.  It consumes under 7W typical, with a peak of 12W.

Rear Camera – 720P HD 30 fps  (from 2012 OmniVision Press Release, no longer available)

Sounds and Noises – Our analysis of Normal and abnormal sounds from your vehicle along with solutions.

Speakers – Standard Audio –  a total of 200 W (details from a sinn press release, s1nn acquired by Harmon), and TeslaTap’s rip-down).  For the Model S and X:

  • Door mid-woofers (4) – 160 mm, 40 W each, 2 ohm
  • Front pillar tweeters (2) – 30 mm (passive)
  • Front middle dash mid-range – 80 mm, 40 W

Speakers – Ultimate Audio – a total of 560 W; For the Model S and X:

  • Front door woofers (2) – 200 mm, 80 W each, 1 ohm
  • Rear door mid-woofers (2) – 160 mm, 40 W each, 2 ohm
  • Front pillar Tweeters (2) – 30 mm, 20 W
  • Dash mid-range (3) – 80 mm, 40 W
  • Hatch mounted mid-range (2) – 80 mm, 40 W
  • Passenger side, rear  sub-woofer -200 mm, 80 W, 1 ohm (in a 25-liter bass box)

Special Access – For Tesla Personnel

  • Diagnostic Access – Press Tesla logo at top of the main display for 2 seconds, then requires password. The password is changed frequently (daily?) and may be specific to each car.
  • Screen Snapshot – Press lower-right steering button labeled “Back” for 2 seconds. Used to save both screens to a file. Only Tesla has access to the file.
  • Ethernet connector – via custom 4-pin connector behind driver side dash panel (only enabled via Tesla service through WiFi or 3G). A fleetwide software update in August 2015 added additional security to prevent non-Tesla access through this connection.
  • Bug reports – If you have what appears to be a software bug, press the Voice Button and say “Bug Report” along with a short description of the issue. Both screens will automatically be captured along with the message and will be forwarded to Tesla.

Superchargers – In North America, each pair of stations is feed from one Supercharger package that uses 3-phase 480 V at 200 amps.  Within the Supercharger package are twelve 10 kW inverters for a total of 120 kW. European Superchargers have 135 kW due to the higher input power available, and the newest Superchargers may go to 145 kW. While not confirmed by Tesla, it was stated in a European ASA ruling where Tesla provided information that a 145 kW Supercharger exists (article was removed from the ASA site in March-2017).

Each of these inverters can be directed to one  of the two stations, so that the power can be split between the two stations in increments of 10 kW (11.25 kW increments in Europe).  There is no power in the charging cable until the car properly handshakes with the Supercharger, so it is safe to use in the rain.  The charging for 85/90/100 kW 400v models is currently set to a maximum of 120 kW. Very early 85 kW cars (2012 and early 2013) are limited to 90 kW with the A version battery. All 40/60/70/75 kW 350v cars are limited to 105 kW due to the lower pack voltage.

Suspension – While components such as the Bilstein monotube shocks and Brembo brakes are well known, check out this excellent analysis by Edmunds of the entire suspension system with extensive photos and explanations.

USB Connections – Two front ports on all Model S and Model X provide USB 2.0 (compatible with USB 3.0 running as 2.0) for connecting to USB drives and charging devices. The refreshed Model S and Model X has two additional rear ports for the 2nd row and the Model X in the 6 and 7 seat configurations as one more port in the last row. These additional ports only supply power for charging devices.  USB 2.0 ports can source up to 500 mA, although our tests showed we could get about 600 mA from the charge-only ports.  Devices that can be connected in the front ports include flash drives, hard disks (with USB connection), phones, mice and USB diskette drives and some music players. USB keyboards were disabled in software version 4.5 and later.

To access music via USB, the drive must be formatted for FAT32 or Linux Ext4 format. As of a test in Jan-2017, using 8.0, exFAT is not supported, nor is NTFS. See more on how to select and use an USB Flash Drive for Music.

Some USB connected Android phones and tablets may provide drive-like memory access that the vehicles can see. This seems to be a bit hit and miss depending on the device’s design. Apple’s iPhone and iPod’s proprietary data format is not seen by the vehicle.

VIN Decoding – Try out our VIN (Vehicle Identification Number) decoder, supporting all Roadsters, Model S and Model X vehicles at Vin Decoder.

WiFi – b/g/i/j/n hardware support, but we believe only b/g are currently enabled in software; Uses the Parrot FC6050 W chip. Use WPA or WPA2 for the best security. Low security WEP was supported in early software versions, but now smartly, is no longer supported.

37 thoughts on “Undocumented

  1. joer293 says:

    Just got the FCC alert about a new Bluetooth and 13.56mhz RFID antenna in the Model 3 B pillar. I can’t tell if they added any security to the passive RFID tag. Out of the box 13.56mhz tags can be cloned with an Arduino/Rasp Pi and some trivial decryption programs found on Google. Although the possibility of using a BLE secure two way handshake with an Apple Watch, iPhone or Android device seems a lot more secure. I’ve always wondered why the Model X bluetooth software hasn’t been updated to support local direct phone app auth. Relying on cell service of both vehicle and phone or watch is completely worthless. I could see a token process where the first request registers with the internet server, for X number of days of offline use.

    https://fccid.io/2AEIM-1089774
    https://fccid.io/2AEIM-1089773

  2. Clemens says:

    Here I found some interesting Pictures an pinouts for the European charge port which is defined for 1-3phases AC (16,5/22kW) or 135kW DC:
    http://www.mennekes.de/index.php?id=vorteile_typ_2&L=1
    see on page 3 (German ony version) DC low charging (1*38kW):
    http://www.mennekes.de/index.php?id=vorteile_typ_2
    Or here on bottom of page 2 DC mid charging (defined for up to 70kW):
    http://www.mennekes.de/uploads/media/MENNEKES_Medieninformation_-_Ladesteckvorrichtungen_Typ_2_für_AC_und_DC_Ladung_02.pdf
    I think that the contact material and contact springs are in a much higher qualitiy compared to the Standard industry connectore so that the European SuC is defined for 135kW.
    Can someone confim that this is the pinout for the European SuC?

  3. rosecall says:

    Where is the gps antenna on the rear glass left side? Does anyone have a pic of what it looks like? Thanks

    • Moderator says:

      Yes, it’s under the glass near the top on the left side on (driver’s side on LHD) cars. I’d estimate it’s about 1.5″ down from the top and maybe 0.75″ from the left side. The antenna is about 0.75″ square.

  4. XP100D4me says:

    2016 (Late Dec) Model X w/ AP2.0 Hardware – FOB Battery: CR2354

  5. Edmondhk says:

    If all 75/70/60(v2) kWh model use the same battery pack, does the software limit the “top” 20% of 75kW battery to make it 60? If this real, will below case happen?
    1) If you set the charge limit on your 75kW to 80% to keep your battery healthy, you will get a 60kW but in high price.
    2) Or you can order a 60kW version, and disable the charge limit, you still keep the battery well. Because the top 20% is software limit. Can someone confirm this? This should be able to confirm by record the near full charging current, it should close to a 75kW@80%
    3) Or even better, even the battery degradation due to ageing, you still get “full” 60kW as the software limiter will try to limit those lost capacity

  6. […] are a lot of components in a Model S. According to TeslaTap, there are 432 lights, 50 motors/solenoids, 52 processors and a host of other complex machinery in […]

  7. Frank S says:

    How can the battery cell count be the same in an 85 and 90? Wouldn’t the 90, producing the same voltage, have to have more cells for additional amperage?

    “90 kWh – 400V, 7104 total cells in 16 modules, each with 6 groups of 74 cells = 444 cells, producing 25 volts (our conjecture, using newer batteries); nominal voltage 346 VDC
    85 kWh – 400V, 7104 total cells in 16 modules, each with 6 groups of 74 cells = 444 cells, producing 25 volts (our analysis from battery photos); nominal voltage 346 VDC”

    Great site!

    • Moderator says:

      Tesla changed the cell formulation for the cells used in the 90. Each cell now holds about 6% more power, but the voltage remains the same per cell. Over the coming years I expect cells will continue to improve so that we’ll see even higher capacities without increasing the size of the pack.

  8. MooseMan says:

    For Autopilot please add that the hardware (front facing camera, radar) was only built into Model S since a certain production date (Aug 2014). For Model S’s before that production date, the cars cannot be easily retrofitted as more of the onboard control architecture for steering and braking has beed changed in parallel.

    I would also like to add, that on the Model S radar is *front* facing only, while competitors have two additional (rear left, rear right) additional long-range radars in the rear to detect fast rear traffic, which is important for lane changes. Using the ultrasonic sensors for rear vehicle detection may be fine in the US (with speed limits), but shows its limits in Germany, where there are cars overtaking a Model S much quicker, if the Model S driver actually wants to achieve the promoted range.

  9. vdiv says:

    Under Autopilot is says 10 ultrasonic sensors however the Model S has 12 of them, 6 in the front and 6 in the back. Does it not use all of them?

  10. Tailzer says:

    Couldn’t see anyone mentioning but sorry if I’ve missed, the audio also supports OGG files which made me very happy.

  11. EricZ says:

    Does anyone know if the SD card storage is accessible and can be replaced?
    How large a card is supported? 64Gb, 128Gb? Is there anything Tesla-specific on the card or just music?

    This seems an easy way to store a larger part of my music library in the car.

    • Moderator says:

      The SD card(s) are inside the MCU (the large 17″ display module). There may be more than one. For music, originally 16 GB was the default and 32 GB was installed for those that bought Sounds Studio (Now called Ultra High Fidelity Sound). It would require hours of disassembly to get to the cards as the entire dash must come out. It’s not clear if Tesla now uses a larger card or exactly what is stored on the card, so a larger card is unlikely to provide any benefit. Songs are not stored on the card, but that was the original plan. We think the space was consumed with map caching and added software features.

  12. Tony Williams says:

    There isn’t any “greater” input power for the Superchargers in Europe at 380-400 VAC (220-230 volt per phase) compared to the North American market at 480 VAC (277 volts per phase). Only the cars in Europe are using a three phase charger not used in North America. The Superchargers use the same “single” phase chargers used in cars in North America.

    It looks like assumptions were made with the 70D that aren’t correct. First, the car does indeed charge at 120kW (370 amps max at low 300-ish battery voltage.

    *********

    3100mah Panasonic 18650 cells. These cells are spec’s at 4.2v max, and that’s exactly what Tesla does with them in regen and charging.

    ********

    85kWh pack – 7104 total cells = 74 cells in parallel * 96 cells in series

    16 battery modules are connected in series. There are 6 sections in one module also in series, and each section of 74 cells is connected in parallel.

    74 cells in parallel at 4.2 volts each in parallel * 6 * 16 = 403.2 volts pack voltage (max charge / regen)

    74 cells in parallel at 4.15 volts each in parallel * 6 * 16 = 398 volts pack voltage (Open Circuit Voltage)

    **********

    70kWh pack – 6216 total cells = 74 * (6 * 14), or 84 cells in series

    14 battery modules (same as a 60kWh battery) are connected in series. There are 6 sections in one module also in series, and each section of 74 cells is connected in parallel (same as 85kWh battery).

    74 cells in parallel at 4.2 volts each in parallel * 6 * 14 = 352.8 volts pack voltage (max charge / regen)

    74 cells in parallel at 4.15 volts each in parallel * 6 * 14 = 348.6 volts pack voltage (OCV)

    *************

    60kWh is 14 modules, each with 6 sets of 60 cells in parallel (14 * 6 * 60 = 5040 cells)
    84 cells in series (6 * 14)

    60 cells in parallel at 4.2 volts each in parallel * 6 * 14 = 352.8 volts pack voltage (max charge / regen)

    60 cells in parallel at 4.15 volts each in parallel * 6 * 16 = 348.6 volts pack voltage (OCV)

    • Moderator says:

      Thanks for the info. I don’t have access to the European Superchargers, but Tesla has stated on multiple occasions that European Superchargers provide 135 kW vs the North American 120 kW. This must mean the European Superchargers draw more input power from the grid. If you have the exact European input specs (from the label on the Supercharger), we’d love to know.

      I’m assuming your numbers on the batteries is conjecture, but if you have an official Tesla source let me know! I should point out we don’t know for sure the exact battery cell details. Panasonic does not provide a spec public sheet on the cells Tesla uses (it’s custom for Tesla). I and everyone else have been going off the closest Panasonic spec sheet to what we think Tesla is using.

      Your information on the 70 is in conflict and I have yet to get any confirmation on the actual battery structure for the 70. If the 70 pack voltage is 350V, then the Supercharger can only provide a maximum of 105 kW (like the 60). If it handles 120 kW, then the pack voltage is likely 400V. If you own a 70, and get 120 kW at chargers, then it’s likely the battery configuration is a 400V pack. The label on the battery should indicate the voltage. I’ve looked at two different 70s and the voltage part of the sticker is obscured by the passenger wheel well.

  13. Aaron says:

    For music formats, the Model S plays 24-bit FLAC with at least 176KHz sampling rate. It also handles USB devices formatted with the EXT4 filesystem without any problems.

  14. Peter says:

    Antenna’s do not seem to be in mirrors:
    Service notes

    Correction: Antenna – AM/FM/HD Radio General Diagnosis
    Diagnose vehicle AM/FM/HD radio. Check for pinch on antenna wires. The wires are ok. Lowered the headliner and re routed antenna wires and cleaned off ground for the Radio Antenna. Checked the reception ok at this time.

    • Moderator says:

      There are multiple antennas – in the mirrors and the rear-hatch. The radios use a system that switches to the antenna with the strongest signal. This is a common design in cars today, especially for FM radio. I’ve personally seen the antenna wires that feed into the mirrors.

      It’s possible with the addition of electric folding mirrors that they had to remove an antenna, but I’ve not heard that yet (nor seen an electric folding mirror pulled apart yet).

  15. Aaron says:

    I looked at a trace of network traffic sent over Wi-Fi from my model S. It looks like all traffic is encrypted and sent over OpenVPN. A portscan reveals that all ports are blocked on my car.

  16. Mr.E says:

    The Homelink Antenna is approx 3-5in to the Left of the frunk connector

  17. rocifier says:

    Hi. The instrument cluster resolution is not correct. BMW’s is 1280×600, but the Tesla is 1280×480 which is more standard for automotive instrument clusters.

    • Moderator says:

      Yikes, I can’t find the source of the HD resolution now. I suspect you’re right, especially if they use square pixels as the ratio works out to be a 1280×480 display. What is your source?

  18. valhalla says:

    WiFi
    MAC= 90:03:B7:XX:XX:XX PARROT

    https://www.parrot.com
    this is very interesting as they make car infotainment systems based on android
    Apps + Navigation + Music
    Hand-free systems

  19. nickjhowe says:

    Under ‘special access’, you can add that there’s an ethernet port for diagnostics/programming behind the side panel at the left hand end of the dash.

    Also found out yesterday there are six sensors to detect the key. Two in the front, two in the back, and one either side attached to the back of the same panel as the ethernet port.

    [you can delete this comment after noting the info. Thx.]

  20. Aaron says:

    From the useragent string it looks like Tesla is using the Qt framework on X11. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qt_(framework)

    It’s one of the best framework out there.

  21. aviators99 says:

    Why do we think it’s an Android variant, as opposed to a non-Android Linux variant? I thought I read the latter.

    • Moderator says:

      I thought I heard it from one of the engineers at the Amped-up event last June, but I could be wrong. The fact it integrates with Google maps, and they have said they will have apps and possibly third-party apps makes Android a good bet. It gets them so much further faster by using Android. Of course they could have home-grown all of it, but seems like a huge amount of duplicate work for what’s available for free with Android.

      • aviators99 says:

        It was originally supposed to be Android, but they went to a different Linux-variant instead. I assumed it was because of the realtime functionality required.

      • teslafan says:

        may be they went to custom due to security, malware threats from apps which may cause potential or dangerous problems to thier cars and owners and eventually Company.

  22. Brian H says:

    And no rare earth permanent magnets!

    😉

    Typo: “more double of any other production” in Features. Suggest “more than double that of any …”

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